Pellaton R., Báldi A. and Lellei-Kovács E.
Institute of Ecology and Botany, Centre for Ecological Research, Alkotmány út 2-4, 2163 Vácrátót, Hungary
The degradation of ecosystems happens at an unprecedented rate, threatening the provision of ecosystem services and ultimately limiting human well-being. We conducted a systematic literature review evaluating the threats surrounding cultural ecosystem services (CES, namely recreation and landscape aesthetics) in European permanent grasslands. We classified threats into underlying causes, direct threats and consequences, and solutions that have been suggested for their mitigation. We screened 13,719 papers on their relevance, of which 77 studies in 71 articles were extracted and qualitatively analysed. We found the most common threats to be land-use and management change processes, while recreational activities also created negative feedback loops, affecting the ecosystem, biodiversity and CES themselves. Suggested solutions were most commonly socio-economic and institutional measures to improve rural populations’ livelihood and improved communication with relevant stakeholders. With those tools, the continued supply of CES can be guaranteed, as they play a crucial role in reconnecting people with nature and thus ensuring future human well-being.
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